Despite the wrongly/overly use of the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, it is not a theory of reasoning with abstraction which captures and generalizes most previous works in the area human needs. From the figure one can notices that the theory is dominated by the psycho-physiological needs in which the philosophical aspects of life are not addressed.
The physiological needs the metabolic requirements for survival in all animals including humans. Then, with their physical needs relatively satisfied and the individual’s safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior.
However, next to the #metabolic needs there are #metaphysical needs of human beings which distinguish them from other types of living creatures. The metaphysical fact of human development is the emergence of a being possessed of consciousness.
According to Aristotle, Homo sapiens exhibits a distinctive aspect to his life, which is concieved as a metaphysical #need to #know. It is a different order from the problems that man shares with the rest of the animal kingdom.
An individuals Metaphysical needs encompass the specific problem of his existence: finding the meaning of life, which are frist formulated by the painter Gauguin in three questions:
1. Why am I here?
2. What must I do?
3. What can I hope for?
Therefore, to make Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs a comprehensive theory of reasoning, these metaphysical needs must be included in the model, particularly beside or inside the #Safety #Needs.
Even though they distinguished Humans from other types of living creatures, the vast majority of individuals only dimly recognize these needs. Thus, these distinctive metaphysical needs of human existence has always been the concern of the few; #philosophically-minded thinkers seeking to comprehend their
isolation in the world.
Richard Schain (2003) separates the many who do not feel this problem in to three groups:
1. #Utilitarian #Materialists-by far the largest group of those who are largely oblivious to the metaphysical problem of existence.
2.#Religious #Believers-those for whom the problem of existence has been answered by a religious faith.
3. #Scientific #specialists-those committed to scientific values and do not recognize a metaphysical problem of existence because they espouse a scientific or scholarly way of thought.